- The village guards are a system of Kurdish tribes and villagers created by the Turkish government in April 1985 as a divide-and-rule tactic to combat the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). Thus, they were reminiscent of the Hamidiye during late Ottoman times and, more recently, the josh in northern Iraq.Incentives to join the village guards included relatively good pay in an area that was chronically poor, as well as a chance to pursue ancient blood feuds with impunity, and sheer state intimidation against those who refused to participate. The most notable tribes that participated in the system were identified with the political right or already in conflict against tribes associated with the PKK. The government was also willing to use blatant criminal elements such as Tahir Adi-yaman, the chief of the Jirki tribe and at the time he was recruited still wanted for the earlier killing of six gendarmes in 1975. Other tribes that participated in the village guards included the Pinyanish, Goyan, Bucaks, and Mamkhuran.The PKK quickly targeted the village guards, resulting in some of the worst examples of the terrorism that became endemic in the southeast of Turkey. At times both sides killed the entire families of the other. Although they helped the state eventually control the PKK, the village guards were also an atavistic throwback to the past in which the Turkish government placed itself in the ironic role of revitalizing feudalistic tribes contrary to Ataturk's supposed policies and supporting criminal elements as illustrated by the Susurluk scandal that broke in October 1996 and some of the abuses of the Deep State and Ergenekon.Over the years the system of village guards become one of the most criticized policies pursued by the Turkish government in its struggle against the PKK and a strong symbol of official state repression. Abolition of the village guards has long been one of the first demands the PKK and other Kurds made for ending their armed struggle against the government. The supporters of the system, of course, came to have a vested financial stake in its continuance. In its 2007 progress report on Turkey's candidacy for membership in the European Union (EU), the organization stated that there were over 57,000 village guards still on duty. The Turkish Interior Ministry responded to a parliamentary question on 20 March 2009 that there were 71,907 village guards, an appreciably higher figure. According to the EU Progress Report on Turkey for 2009, there continue to be reports of village guards committing human rights violations.Despite these problems, the system of village guards is still in operation as of early 2010.
Historical Dictionary of the Kurds. Michael M. Gunter.
Look at other dictionaries:
Village guard system — Village guards (Turkish: Korucular , officially Geçici ve Gönüllü Köy Korucuları ( temporary and voluntary village guards )) are paramilitaries. Originally they were set up and funded by the Turkish state in the mid 1980s under the direction of… … Wikipedia
Village files — were documents based on a card index system, with detailed data on every Arab village in Palestine . Gathered by the SHAI, they were the basis of Haganah and Palmah operations during the 1948 Palestine war.Ian Black and Benny Morris, Israel s… … Wikipedia
History of the Scots Guards (1642–1804) — The Scots Guards trace their origins back to 1642 when, by order of King Charles I, the regiment was raised by Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll for service in Ireland, and was known as the Marquis of Argyll s Royal Regiment. It spent a… … Wikipedia
History of the Irish Guards — The history of the Irish Guards as a regiment of Foot Guards in the British Army dates from 1900. A unit known as the Irish Guards went to France as a Stuart regiment in 1692, and the French Army s 92e Régiment d Infanterie traces its ancestry to … Wikipedia
History of the Scots Guards (1914–1945) — Pre WW1See Scots Guards (1805).World War IOn 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife the Countess Sophie were assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. This event triggered the First World War that would eventually lead every major power … Wikipedia
Dasmariñas Village — or simply Dasma, is a private subdivision and gated community in Makati City, Metro Manila, Philippines. It occupies 187.21 hectares and is bounded by Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) to the north, McKinley Road to the northeast, Pili… … Wikipedia
4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards — The 4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards is an inactive armoured regiment of the Canadian militia. [ [http://www.canadiansoldiers.com/mediawiki 1.5.5/index.php?title=Armoured Regiments 1940 1963 canadiansoldiers.com armoured regiment listing] ]… … Wikipedia
Coldstream Guards — Cap Star of the Coldstream Guards Active 1650–present Country … Wikipedia
Division blindée des Guards — Sherman Mark V (M4A4) du 2nd Armd Bn Grenadier Guards conservé à l Imperial War Museum. Période 17 … Wikipédia en Français
Unités des Guards britanniques pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale — La Garde britannique (Household Division) est traditionnellement constituée de cinq régiments d infanterie (Foot Guards) et deux de cavalerie ( Household Cavalry ). Image traditionnelle de la Garde britannique : les Coldstream Guards peints… … Wikipédia en Français